Rabu, 04 Mei 2011

Anguilla - Sidhat - 鳗鱼 - Eel

Anguilla - Sidhat - 鳗鱼 - Eel

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Subclass: Neopterygii
Order: Anguilliformes
Suborder: Anguilloidei
Family: Anguillidae
Genus: Anguilla
Schrank, 1798

Anguillidae (鰻鱺科) is a family of fishes that contains the freshwater eels (淡水鳗鱼) (淡水鳗、白鳝、白鳗、河鳗、鳗鲡、青鳝、风馒、日本鳗。). There are 19 species/subspecies in this family, all in genus Anguilla (鳗鲡属) (鳗鱼、白鳝、白鳗、河鳗、鳗鲡、青鳝、风馒、日本鳗。)

Freshwater Eel (淡水鳗鱼)

They are catadromous, meaning they spend their lives in freshwater rivers, lakes, or estuaries and return to the ocean to spawn. The young eel larvae, called leptocephali, live only in the ocean and consume small particles called marine snow. They grow larger in size, and in their next growth stage they are called glass eels (玻璃鳗). At this stage they enter estuaries and when they become pigmented they are known as elvers (鳗线). Elvers travel upstream in freshwater rivers where they grow to adulthood. Some details of eel reproduction are as yet unknown, and the discovery of the spawning area of the American and European eels in the Sargasso Sea is one of the more famous anecdotes in the history of Ichthyology. See Eel life history. The spawning areas of some other anguillid eels, such as the Japanese eel, and the giant mottled eel were also discovered recently in the western North Pacific Ocean.

  • 玻璃鳗(glass eel):在接近沿岸水域时,身体转变成流线型,减少阻力,以脱离强劲洋流。
  • 鳗线(elvers):进入河口水域时,开始出现黑色素,却也形成养殖业鳗苗的补捉来源。
  • 黄鳗(yellow eel):在河川的成长期间,鱼腹部呈现黄色。
  • 银鳗(silver eel):在成熟时,鱼身转变成类似深似深海鱼的银白色,同时眼睛变大,胸鳍加宽,以适应回游至深海产卵。
  • Bōlí mán (glass eel): the coastal waters near the body into a streamlined, reducing resistance to strong ocean currents from.
  • Mán xiàn (elvers): enter the estuary waters, began to melanoma, but also formed the complement to catch eel aquaculture industry sources.
  • Huáng mán (yellow eel): growing up in the river, fish belly yellow.
  • Yín mán (silver eel): At maturity, the fish into deep as the deep-sea fish like silver, and large eyes, pectoral fins widened to accommodate the migration to the sea to spawn.

Freshwater eels are elongate with tubelike, snake-shaped bodies. They have large, pointed heads and their dorsal fins are usually continuous with their caudal fins and anal fins, to form a fringe lining the posterior end of the body. They have small pectoral fins to help them navigate along river bottoms. Their scales are thin and soft.
Anguillid eels are important food fish. Eel aquaculture is a fast-growing industry. Important food eel species include longfin eel, Australian long-finned eel, short-finned eel, and Japanese eel. Most eel production historically has been in Japan, Korea and Taiwan, but in recent years the greatest amount of production has been in China.
Seafood watch, one of the most well known sustainable seafood advisory lists, recommends that consumers avoid eating anguillid eels due to significant pressures on worldwide populations. Several species used as unagi have seen their population sizes greatly reduced in the past half century. Catches of the European Eel, for example, have declined about 80% since the 1960's. Although about 90% of freshwater eel consumed in the U.S. are farm-raised, they are not bred in captivity. Instead, young eels are collected from the wild and then raised in various enclosures. In addition to wild eel populations being reduced by this process, eels are often farmed in open net pens which allow parasites, waste products, and diseases to flow directly back into wild eel habitat, further threatening wild populations. Freshwater eels are carnivores and as such are fed other wild-caught fish, adding an additional element of unsustainability to current eel farming practices.

 Species

Japanese eel, Anguilla japonica 
日本鰻鱺; 日本鳗; 白鳗; 白鳝; 河鳗; 鳗鱼; 青鳝; 风馒


References

  1. ^ Sepkoski, Jack (2002). "A compendium of fossil marine animal genera". Bulletins of American Paleontology 364: p.560. Retrieved 2007-12-25.
  2. ^ McCosker, John F. (1998). Paxton, J.R. & Eschmeyer, W.N.. ed. Encyclopedia of Fishes. San Diego: Academic Press. p. 89. ISBN 0-12-547665-5.
  3. ^ Halpin, Patricia (2007). Seafood Watch: Unagi. Monterey Bay Aquarium
 


Anguillidae - Freshwater Eels - Anguilles d'eau douce
Freshwater eels are found world-wide in temperate to tropical waters except for the south Atlantic Ocean and the whole eastern Pacific Ocean. There are 16 species with 1 occurring in Canada and the NCR.

The term eel-like is based on the body shape of freshwater eels and includes the muscular slipperiness associated with this fish and its mucus-producing skin. Both dorsal and anal fins are long and join the tail fin. The dorsal fin begins well behind the pectoral fin level. There are no pelvic fins and the pectorals, when present, are on mid-flank. Scales are absent or when present small, embedded and cycloid. There is a lateral line. Jaws are strong and toothed. The gill openings are small and just in front of the pectoral fins. The anterior nostril is tubular

The life cycle of eels was unknown until Johannes Schmidt published his 1922 study based on years of collecting. Where the adults went on their seaward migration and where the elvers ascending rivers came from were a mystery. These eels are catadromous, living in freshwater but migrating to the sea to spawn and die. In the North Atlantic Ocean spawning occurs in the Sargasso Sea. The young eels or leptocephali (= thin head larvae) are distinctive being transparent and leaf-like. A newspaper can be read through the body of a leptocephalus. In this form they drift to the shores of America and Europe, transform into elvers with the more familiar eel-shape and move into rivers and lakes to feed and grow.

The biology of eels is based almost entirely on the freshwater phase of their life. Adults in freshwater develop large eyes, the gut degenerates and coloration changes in preparation for the migration to the Sargasso Sea. Adults were only caught in the deep ocean, at nearly 2000 m near the Bahamas, in 1977. The Sargasso spawning ground is deduced from collections of larvae across the Atlantic Ocean - the smallest and youngest larvae are found around the Sargasso Sea. The spawning grounds are at about 400 m, at a 17°C temperature and in saltier water than usual sea conditions according to some authors but since spawning adults have never been caught this remains dubious.

The theory advanced by D. W. Tucker in 1959 maintained that European Eels lack the energy resources in their migratory, spawning phase to reach the Sargasso Sea 7000 km from Europe. They are presumed to be following an instinct to head out to sea, dating from an earlier geological age when the Atlantic Ocean was narrower before the separation caused by Continental Drift. All European Eels die at sea and Europe is restocked by larvae drifting there spawned from American parents. The American populations are closer to the Sargasso and can make the journey easily. Differences between American and European eels are merely the consequence of different environmental regimes in different parts of the Sargasso. This theory has not found general acceptance but, if true, means that all European Eels can be harvested for food without depleting stocks. Eels are valued as food, particularly in Europe and Japan, but are not used as extensively in North America. 

 


What is the Size of an Eel?


Composed of 4 suborders, 19 families, 100 genera and roughly 800 species, the Anguilliformes or Eels are one of the largest orders of fish in the world. In terms of what is the size of an eel, it depends on the species, but their length ranges from 5 centimeters (2.0 inches) to as large as 3.75 meters (12.3 feet).

The Anguillidae family of freshwater eels belongs to the suborder Anguilloidei, and is made up of 19 species and subspecies. Among these is Anguilla anguilla, the European eel, which is typically 60 to 80 cm long, though it is known in rare occasions to reach 1 ½ meters in length. Anguilla bengalensis bengalensis, the Indian mottled eel, can grow as long as 1.2 m and weigh up to 6 kilograms. Anguilla bengalensis labiata, the African mottled eel, has an average length of 1.75 m and an average weight of 20 kg.

Still part of the Anguillidae family, the Indonesian shortfin eel (Anguilla bicolor bicolor) has an average lifespan of 20 years and grows up to a length of 1.2 m. The New Zealand longfin eel (Anguilla dieffenbachii) has a common length of 1.2 m and a common weight of 10 kg, but can, in certain cases, achieve a size of 2 m and weigh more than 50 kg (the female of the species is normally twice longer than the male). The American eel (Anguilla rostrata) holds the world weight record at 9.25 pounds.

Of the Moray eels of the Muraenidae family, the smallest would be the Snyder’s Moray (Anarchias leucurus) at 11.5 cm long (4.5 in), while the Slender giant moray (Strophidon sathete) is the longest at 4 m (13 ft). In terms of mass, the largest would be the Giant moray (Gymnothorax javanicus), which can grow up to nearly 3 m (9.8 ft) in length and above 36 kg (79 lbs) in weight. The False morays of the Chlopsidae family are so-named because of their resemblance to the morays, except that they are considerably smaller, ranging in size between 11 to 42 cm (4.3-17 in).

Also known as Worm eels, as well as Spaghetti eels, the Moringuidae family ranges in size from around 15 to 140 cm (5.9-55 in). The Mud eels of the Heterenchelyidae family vary in length from 32 to 149 cm (13-59 in). The largest member of the Congroidei suborder’s Congridae family, the European conger (Conger conger) is known to grow up to a length of 3 m (9.8 ft) and weigh 160 kg (350 lbs). The Pike conger of the Muraenesocidae family ranges in length from 60 to 250 cm (2.0-8.2 ft).

The Longneck eels of the Derichthyidae family can reach a size of around 60 cm (24 in). The interestingly-named Witch eels or Duckbill eels of the Nettastomatidae family have a maximum length of 125 cm (4.10 ft). The Snake eels of the family Ophichthidae (appropriately taken from the Greek words “ophis” meaning “snake” and “ichthys” meaning fish) average 10 cm (3.9 in) up to 3 m long (9.8 ft). And from the suborder Synaphobranchoidei, the Cutthroat eels of the Synaphobranchidae family range in length from 23 to 160 cm (9.1-63 in).

It should be noted that certain other marine creatures usually referred to as eels should not truly be classified as such. For instance, the Electric eel is actually a relative of the catfish, while the Lamprey eel is an aquatic parasite and not even really a fish. At any rate, the rest of the examples given are only a few of the staggering number of suborders, families and species of the Anguilliformes order.

 



科名 科中文名 學名 命名者 大陸中文名 臺灣中文名
Anguillidae 鰻鱺科 Anguilla ancestralis Ege, 1939 原鰻鱺 原鰻鱺
Anguillidae 鰻鱺科 Anguilla anguilla (Linnaeus, 1758) 歐洲鰻鱺 歐洲鰻鱺
Anguillidae 鰻鱺科 Anguilla aucklandii Kichardson, 1848 奧克蘭鰻鱺 奧克蘭鰻鱺
Anguillidae 鰻鱺科 Anguilla australis australis Richardson, 1841 澳洲鰻鱺 澳洲鰻鱺
Anguillidae 鰻鱺科 Anguilla australis occidentalis Schmidt, 1928 短鰭澳洲鰻鱺 短鰭澳洲鰻鱺
Anguillidae 鰻鱺科 Anguilla australis schmidti Phillipps, 1925 新澳鰻鱺 新澳鰻鱺
Anguillidae 鰻鱺科 Anguilla bengalensis bengalensis (Gray, 1831) 孟加拉鰻鱺 孟加拉鰻鱺
Anguillidae 鰻鱺科 Anguilla bengalensis labiata (Peters, 1852) 東印度洋鰻鱺 東印度洋鰻鱺
Anguillidae 鰻鱺科 Anguilla bicolor bicolor McClelland, 1844 雙色鰻鱺 雙色鰻鱺
Anguillidae 鰻鱺科 Anguilla bicolor pacifica Schmidt, 1928 太平洋雙色鰻鱺 二色鰻
Anguillidae 鰻鱺科 Anguilla borneensis Popta, 1924 加里曼丹鰻鱺 加里曼丹鰻鱺
Anguillidae 鰻鱺科 Anguilla breviceps Chu et Jin, 1984 短頭鰻鱺 短頭鰻鱺
Anguillidae 鰻鱺科 Anguilla celebensis Kaup, 1856 蘇拉威西鰻鱺 蘇拉威西鰻鱺
Anguillidae 鰻鱺科 Anguilla dieffenbachii Gray, 1842 大鰻鱺 大鰻鱺
Anguillidae 鰻鱺科 Anguilla elphinstonei Sykes, 1839 疏斑鰻鱺 疏斑鰻鱺
Anguillidae 鰻鱺科 Anguilla foochowensis Chu et Jin, 1984 福州鰻鱺 福州鰻鱺
Anguillidae 鰻鱺科 Anguilla interioris Whitley, 1938 內唇鰻鱺 內唇鰻鱺
Anguillidae 鰻鱺科 Anguilla japonica Temminck & Schlegel, 1846 日本鰻鱺 日本鰻
Anguillidae 鰻鱺科 Anguilla malgumora Kaup, 1856 印尼鰻鱺 印尼鰻鱺
Anguillidae 鰻鱺科 Anguilla marmorata Quoy & Gaimard, 1824 花鰻鱺 鱸鰻
Anguillidae 鰻鱺科 Anguilla mauritiana Bennett, 1831 毛里求斯鰻鱺 毛里求斯鰻鱺
Anguillidae 鰻鱺科 Anguilla megastoma Kaup, 1856 大口鰻鱺 大口鰻鱺
Anguillidae 鰻鱺科 Anguilla mossambica (Peters, 1852) 莫桑比克鰻鱺 莫桑比克鰻鱺
Anguillidae 鰻鱺科 Anguilla nebulosa McClelland, 1844 雲紋鰻鱺 雲紋鰻鱺
Anguillidae 鰻鱺科 Anguilla nigricans Chu et Wu, 1984 烏耳鰻鱺 烏耳鰻鱺
Anguillidae 鰻鱺科 Anguilla obscura Günther, 1872 灰鰻鱺 灰鰻鱺
Anguillidae 鰻鱺科 Anguilla reinhardtii Steindachner, 1867 寬鰭鰻鱺 寬鰭鰻鱺
Anguillidae 鰻鱺科 Anguilla rostrata (LeSueur, 1817) 美洲鰻鱺 美洲鰻鱺
Anguillidae 鰻鱺科 Anguilla sinensis McClelland, 1844 中華鰻鱺 中華鰻鱺
http://fishdb.sinica.edu.tw/2001new/chinesequer2.asp?page=68&T1=a&R1=keyword&D1=keyword





Family Anguillidae - Freshwater eels
  Order
:
Anguillidae
  Class
:
Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
  No. of Genera in Ref
:
1
  No. of Species in Ref
:
15
  Environment
:
Fresh : Yes | Brackish : Yes | Marine : Yes
  Aquarium
:
none
  First Fossil Record
:
upper   Tertiary   upper   Miocene
Ref..   Berg, L.S. 1958
  Remark
:
Usually catadromous fishes in tropical and temperate waters, except eastern Pacific and south Atlantic. Eellike body with minute or embedded scales. Well developed pectorals but no pelvic fins; dorsal and caudal fin confluent with anal fin. All species are important food fishes and are sold fresh, smoked, or canned. Important aquaculture species based on captured juveniles (elvers); widely introduced. All spend their juvenile and adult life in freshwater, returning to the ocean to spawn and die. The leptocephalus larvae are marine with sharply pointed tail which distinguishes the family from the elopids. There is some doubt as to the validity of some of the fifteen species currently recognized.
  Etymology
:
Latin, anguilla, ae = eel ( Ref. 45335).
  Division
:
Marine
  Reproductive guild
:
nonguarders
  Typical activity level
:
normal
  Main Ref
:
  Coordinator
:


 


List of Nominal Species of Anguillidae (Freshwater eels)

Nominal Species (n = 119) Present allocation (n = 23) Ref.
Anguilla acutirostris Risso, 1827 Anguilla anguilla 594
Anguilla aegyptiaca Kaup, 1856 Anguilla anguilla 594
Anguilla altirostris Kaup, 1856 Anguilla anguilla 10733
Anguilla amblodon Günther, 1867 Anguilla bicolor bicolor 3506
Anguilla ancestralis Ege, 1939 Anguilla celebesensis 7050
Anguilla ancidda Kaup, 1856 Anguilla anguilla 10733
Muraena anguilla Linnaeus, 1758 Anguilla anguilla 13696
Muraena anguilla maculata Chiereghini, 1872 Anguilla anguilla 13696
Anguilla anguilla var. macrocephala De la Pylaie, 1835 Anguilla anguilla 13696
Tribranchus anguillaris Peters, 1846 Anguilla mossambica 3506
Muraena argentea Lesueur, 1817 Anguilla rostrata 58454
Anguilla arracana McClelland, 1844 Anguilla bengalensis bengalensis 41236
Anguilla aterrima Rafinesque, 1820 Anguilla rostrata 58454
Anguilla australis Richardson, 1841 Anguilla australis australis 5259
Anguilla australis occidentalis Schmidt, 1928 Anguilla australis australis 7300
Muraena bengalensis Gray, 1831 Anguilla bengalensis bengalensis 4832
Anguilla bibroni Kaup, 1856 Anguilla anguilla 10733
Anguilla bicolor McClelland, 1844 Anguilla bicolor bicolor 3506
Anguilla bleekeri Kaup, 1856 Anguilla bicolor bicolor 3506
Anguilla blephura Rafinesque, 1817 Anguilla rostrata 58454
Anguilla borneensis Popta, 1924 Anguilla malgumora 9828
Muraena bostoniensis Lesueur, 1817 Anguilla rostrata 58454
Anguilla breviceps Chu & Jin, 1984 Anguilla breviceps 56787
Anguilla brevirostris Cisternas, 1877 Anguilla anguilla 10733
Leptocephalus brevirostris Kaup, 1856 Anguilla anguilla 10733
Anguilla callensis Guichenot, 1850 Anguilla anguilla 594
Anguilla canariensis Valenciennes, 1843 Anguilla anguilla 594
Anguilla cantori Kaup, 1856 Anguilla bicolor bicolor 3506
Anguilla capensis Kaup, 1860 Anguilla mossambica 3506
Anguilla capitone Kaup, 1856 Anguilla anguilla 10733
Anguilla celebesensis Kaup, 1856 Anguilla celebesensis 7050
Anguilla chrisypa Rafinesque, 1817 Anguilla rostrata 58454
Anguilla cloacina Bonaparte, 1846 Anguilla anguilla 10733
Anguilla cubana Kaup, 1856 Anguilla rostrata 58454
Anguilla cuvieri Kaup, 1856 Anguilla anguilla 10733
Anguilla delalandi Kaup, 1856 Anguilla mossambica 56787
Anguilla dieffenbachii Gray, 1842 Anguilla dieffenbachii 11115
Anguilla dussumieri Kaup, 1856 Anguilla bicolor bicolor 3506
Anguilla elphinstonei Sykes, 1839 Anguilla nebulosa 6028
Anguilla elphinstonei Sykes, 1839 Anguilla bengalensis bengalensis 41236
Anguilla eurystoma Heckel & Kner, 1858 Anguilla anguilla 10733
Anguilla fluviatilis Gistel, 1848 Anguilla anguilla 80565
Anguilla fluviatilis Anslijin, 1828 Anguilla anguilla 10733
Anguilla fluviatilis Heckel & Kner, 1858 Anguilla anguilla 13696
Leptocephalus grassii Eigenmann & Kennedy, 1902 Anguilla rostrata 58454
Anguilla hibernica Couch, 1865 Anguilla anguilla 10733
Anguilla hildebrandti Peters, 1881 Anguilla marmorata 3506
Anguilla huangi Teng, Lin & Tzeng, 2009 Anguilla luzonensis 85815
Anguilla interioris Whitley, 1938 Anguilla interioris 9828
Anguilla japonica Temminck & Schlegel, 1846 Anguilla japonica 559
Anguilla johannae Günther, 1867 Anguilla marmorata 3506
Anguilla kieneri Kaup, 1856 Anguilla anguilla 10733
Muraena labiata Peters, 1852 Anguilla bengalensis labiata 33390
Anguilla laticanda Rafinesque, 1818 Anguilla rostrata 58454
Anguilla laticauda Rafinesque, 1818 Anguilla rostrata 58454
Anguilla latirostris Risso, 1827 Anguilla anguilla 594
Anguilla linnei Malm, 1877 Anguilla anguilla 13696
Anguilla lutea Rafinesque, 1820 Anguilla rostrata 58454
Anguilla luzonensis Watanabe, Aoyama & Tsukamoto, 2009 Anguilla luzonensis 83381
Muraena macrocephala Lesueur, 1817 Anguilla rostrata 58454
Muraena macrocephala Rapp, 1849 Anguilla bicolor bicolor 3506
Muraena macrophthalma Peters, 1852 Anguilla bengalensis labiata 3506
Anguilla macrops Kaup, 1856 Anguilla rostrata 58454
Anguilla malabarica Kaup, 1856 Anguilla bicolor bicolor 3506
Anguilla malgumora Kaup, 1856 Anguilla malgumora 9828
Muraena manillensis Bleeker, 1864 Anguilla marmorata 58462
Anguilla marginata Kaup, 1856 Anguilla anguilla 10733
Anguilla marina Nardo, 1860 Anguilla anguilla 13696
Anguilla marmorata Quoy & Gaimard, 1824 Anguilla marmorata 3506
Anguilla mauritiana Bennett, 1831 Anguilla marmorata 3506
Anguilla mediorostris Risso, 1827 Anguilla anguilla 10733
Anguilla megastoma Kaup, 1856 Anguilla megastoma 2847
Anguilla melanochir Kaup, 1856 Anguilla anguilla 10733
Anguilla microptera Kaup, 1856 Anguilla anguilla 10733
Anguilla migratoria Krøyer, 1846 Anguilla anguilla 10733
Anguilla moa Bleeker, 1850 Anguilla bicolor bicolor 41236
Anguilla morena Kaup, 1856 Anguilla anguilla 10733
Muraena mossambica Peters, 1852 Anguilla mossambica 33390
Anguilla mowa Bleeker, 1853 Anguilla bicolor bicolor 41236
Anguilla nebulosa McClelland, 1844 Anguilla nebulosa 6028
Anguilla nebulosa nebulosa McClelland, 1844 Anguilla bengalensis bengalensis 41236
Neoanguilla nepalensis Shrestha, 2008 Neoanguilla nepalensis 85009
Anguilla nigricans Chu & Wu, 1984 Anguilla nigricans 33340
Anguilla nilotica Heckel, 1846 Anguilla anguilla 594
Anguilla nilotica Kaup, 1857 Anguilla anguilla 13696
Anguilla novaeorleanensis Kaup, 1856 Anguilla rostrata 58454
Anguilla novaeterrae Kaup, 1856 Anguilla rostrata 58454
Anguilla oblongirostris Blanchard, 1866 Anguilla anguilla 13696
Anguilla obscura Günther, 1872 Anguilla obscura 9828
Anguilla oxycephala De la Pylaie, 1835 Anguilla anguilla 80565
Muraena oxyrhina Ekström, 1831 Anguilla anguilla 10733
Anguilla pacifica Schmidt, 1928 Anguilla bicolor pacifica 2858
Anguilla platycephala Kaup, 1856 Anguilla anguilla 10733
Muraena platyrhina Ekström, 1831 Anguilla anguilla 10733
Anguilla platyrhynchus Costa, 1850 Anguilla anguilla 10733
Anguilla platyura De la Pylaie, 1835 Anguilla anguilla 80565
Anguilla punctatissima Kaup, 1856 Anguilla rostrata 58454
Anguilla reinhardtii Steindachner, 1867 Anguilla reinhardtii 5259
Anguilla remifera Jordan & Evermann, 1902 Anguilla japonica 55073
Muraena rostrata Lesueur, 1817 Anguilla rostrata 12965
Anguilla savignyi Kaup, 1856 Anguilla anguilla 10733
Anguilla schmidti Phillipps, 1925 Anguilla australis schmidti 46206
Anguilla septembrina Bonaparte, 1846 Anguilla anguilla 13696
Muraena serpentina Lesueur, 1817 Anguilla rostrata 58454
Anguilla spengeli Weber, 1912 Anguilla bicolor bicolor 7050
Anguilla tenuirostris DeKay, 1842 Anguilla rostrata 58454
Anguilla texana Kaup, 1856 Anguilla rostrata 58454
Anguilla tyrannus Girard, 1858 Anguilla rostrata 58454
Anguilla variegata McClelland, 1844 Anguilla bengalensis bengalensis 41236
Muraena virescens Peters, 1852 Anguilla bicolor bicolor 3506
Anguilla vulgaris Rafinesque, 1810 Anguilla anguilla 80565
Anguilla vulgaris Shaw, 1803 Anguilla anguilla 13696
Anguilla vulgaris fluviatilis Rafinesque, 1810 Anguilla anguilla 13696
Anguilla vulgaris lacustus Rafinesque, 1810 Anguilla anguilla 13696
Anguilla vulgaris macrocephala De la Pylaie, 1835 Anguilla anguilla 80565
Anguilla vulgaris marina Rafinesque, 1810 Anguilla anguilla 13696
Anguilla vulgaris platyura De la Pylaie, 1835 Anguilla anguilla 10733
Anguilla wabashensis Kaup, 1856 Anguilla rostrata 58454
Anguilla xanthomelas Rafinesque, 1820 Anguilla rostrata 58454
http://www.fishbase.org/Nomenclature/NominalSpeciesList.php?family=Anguillidae



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