Jumat, 06 Mei 2011

Anguilliformes - Sidhat - 鰻鱺目 - Eel

Anguilliformes - Sidhat - 鰻鱺目 - Eel




Anguilliformes - Sidhat - 鰻鱺目 - Eel

Order Summary for Anguilliformes
  Main Ref
:
  Order
:
Anguilliformes eels and morays
  Class
:
Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
  Sister Order
:
Saccopharyngiformes 85 M years
  Ref..
:
  First Fossil Record
:
middle Cretaceous
  Occurs in
:
Marine
Fresh
Brackish
  Remark
:
Pelvic fins and skeleton absent; pectoral fins and girdle absent in some; pectoral fins, when present, at least midlateral in position or higher and skeleton lacking bony connection to skull (posttemporal absent); dorsal and anal fins confluent with caudal fin (caudal fin rayless or lost in some); scales usually absent or, if present, cycloid and embedded; body very elongate (eel-like); gill openings usually narrow; gill region elongate and gills displaced posteriorly; gill rakers absent; pyloric caeca absent; maxilla toothed, bordering mouth; the two pre-maxillae (rarely absent), the vomer (usually), and the ethmoid united into a single bone; branchiostegal rays 6-49; swim bladder present, duct usually present; oviducts absent; opisthotic, orbitosphenoid, mesocoracoid, gular plate, posttemporal, postcleithra, supramaxilla, and extrascapular bones absent; ossified symplectic absent (cartilaginous one present in Synaphobranchidae); hyomandibular united with quadrate; ribs present or absent.
  Classetymology
:
Greek aktis = ray, thunderbolt, beam + Greek pterygion, diminutive of pteryx = wing, fin. Ref. 45335.
  Orderetymology
:
Latin, anguila = eel + Latin, forma = shape. Ref. 45335.
  Families
:

 


Anguilliformes - Sidhat - 鰻鱺目 - Eel

Eels (Anguilliformes; pronounced /æŋˌɡwɪlɨˈfɔrmiːz/) are an order of fish, which consists of four suborders, 19 families, 110 genera and approximately 800 species. Most eels are predators. The term "eel" is also used for some other similarly shaped fish, such as electric eels and spiny eels, but these are not members of the Anguilliformes order.

Description

Eels are elongated fishes, ranging in length from 5 centimetres (2.0 in) in the one-jawed eel (Monognathus ahlstromi) to 4 metres (13 ft) in the slender giant moray. Adults range in weight from 30 grams to well over 25 kilograms. They possess no pelvic fins, and many species also lack pectoral fins. The dorsal and anal fins are fused with the caudal or tail fin, forming a single ribbon running along much of the length of the animal. Most eels live in the shallow waters of the ocean and burrow into sand, mud, among rocks, or in cracks found in coral reefs. A majority of eel species are nocturnal, and thus are rarely seen. Sometimes, they are seen living together in holes, or "eel pits". Some species of eels also live in deeper water on the continental shelves and over the slopes deep as 4,000 metres (13,000 ft). Only members of the Anguillidae family regularly inhabit fresh water, but they too return to the sea to breed.
Eels begin life as flat and transparent larvae, or leptocephali. Eel larvae drift in the surface waters of the sea feeding on marine snow, small particles that float in the water. Eel larvae then metamorphose into glass eels and then become elvers before finally seeking out their juvenile and adult habitats.

 


Anguilliformes - Sidhat - 鰻鱺目 - Eel

Ordo Anguilliformes



Elongate fishes with pelvic fins and pelvic girdle absent or reduced.
Ikan memanjang dengan sirip perut dan korset perut tidak ada atau berkurang.

The paired pelvic or ventral fins are located ventrally below the pectoral fins. They are homologous to the hindlimbs of tetrapods. The pelvic fin assists the fish in going up or down through the water, turning sharply, and stopping quickly.



Pelvic fin ray: each of the bones forming the fin beneath the pelvic girdle.
Pelvic girdle: set of bones forming the pelvis.


Anguilliformes - Sidhat - 鰻鱺目 - Eel

Sidat (ordo Anguilliformes 鰻鱺目) kelompok ikan berbentuk tubuh mirip ular. Ordo Anguilliformes terdiri atas 4 subordo, 19 famili, 110 genera, dan 400 spesies. Kebanyakan hidup di laut namun ada pula yang hidup di air tawar.

 Klasifikasi

Subordo Anguilloidei 鰻鱺亞目; 鳗鲡亚目

 


  • Aoteidae


  • Dysommidae

  • Dysomminidae (arrowtooth eels and mustard eels)

  • Echelidae


  • Macrocephenchelyidae 大头鳗科




  • Neenchelyidae

  • Nessorhamphidae 鸭嘴鳗科

  • Nettodaridae

  • Simenchelyidae

  • Todaridae

  • Xenocongridae (false morays)  伪海鳝科

 

Subordo Congroidei 糯鰻亞目 康吉鳗亚目





  • Serrivomeridae (sawtooth eels)

  • Synaphobranchidae (cutthroat eels and deepsea eels)

Subordo Muraenoidei
 

  • Chlopsidae

  • Muraenidae (moray eels and morays)

  • Myrocongridae

 

Subordo Nemichthyoidei 线鳗亚目 
  • Cyemidae 短尾线鳗科



 

 Subordo Synaphobranchoidei 合鳃鳗亚目
 

  • Simenchelyidae 寄生鳗科

  • Nettodaridae

  • Dysommidae 前肛鳗科

     




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